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HTML Introduction


What is HTML

HTML is a markup language for describing Web pages

  • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
  • it is a markup language set of markup tags
  • HTML documents are described by HTML tags
  • Each HTML tag describes different document content

HTML Example

A small HTML document:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Page Title</title>
</head>
<body>

<h1>My First Heading</h1>
<p>My first paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>
Try it yourself »

Example Explained

  • The DOCTYPE declaration defines the document type to be HTML
  • The text between <html> and </html> describes an HTML document
  • The text between <head> and </head> provides information about the document
  • The text between <title> and </title> provides a title for the document
  • The text between <body> and </body> describes the visible page content
  • The text between <h1> and </h1> describes a heading
  • The text between <p> and </p> describes a paragraph

HTML Tags

HTML tags are keywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets:

<tagname>content</tagname>
  • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <p> and </p>
  • The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag
  • The end tag is written like the start tag, but with a slash before the tag name

Web Browsers

The purpose of a web browser such as firefox is to read HTML documents and display them.

View in Browser


HTML Page Structure

Below is a visualization of an HTML page structure:

<html>
<head>
<title>Page title</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p>This is another paragraph.</p>
</body>
</html>

The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration

The <!DOCTYPE> declaration helps the browser to display a web page correctly.

There are different document types on the web.

To display a document correctly, the browser must know both type and version.

The doctype declaration is not case sensitive. All cases are acceptable:

<!DOCTYPE html>

<!DOCTYPE HTML>

<!doctype html>

<!Doctype Html>

Common Declarations

HTML5

<!DOCTYPE html>

HTML 4.01

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

HTML Versions

various versions of HTML:

Version Year
HTML lunch date 1991
HTML 2.0 lunch date 1995
HTML 3.2 lunch date 1997
HTML 4.01 lunch date 1999
XHTML lunch date 2000
HTML5 lunch date 2014