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# JavaScript Arithmetic

### JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators perform arithmetic on numbers (literals or variables).

Operator Description
- Subtraction
* Multiplication
/ Division
% Modulus
++ Increment
-- Decrement

### Arithmetic Operations

A typical arithmetic operation operates on two numbers.

The two numbers can be literals:

var x = 70 + 80;

or variables:

var x = a + b;

or expressions:

### Example

var x = (70 + 80) * a;

### Operators and Operands

The numbers (in an arithmetic operation) are called operands.

The operation (to be performed between the two operands) is defined by an operator.

Operand Operator Operand
70 + 80

var x = 4;
var y = 3;
var z = x + y;

The subtraction operator (-) subtracts numbers.

### Subtracting

var x = 4;
var y = 3;
var z = x - y;

The multiplication operator (*) multiplies numbers.

### Multiplying

var x = 4;
var y = 3;
var z = x * y;

The division operator (/) divides numbers.

### Dividing

var x = 4;
var y = 3;
var z = x / y;

The modular operator (%) returns the division remainder.

### Modulus

var x = 4;
var y = 3;
var z = x % y;

The increment operator (++) increments numbers.

### Incrementing

var x = 4;
x++;
var z = x;

The decrement operator (--) decrements numbers.

var x = 4;
x--;
var z = x;

### Operator Precedence

Operator precedence describes the order in which operations are performed in an arithmetic expression.

### Example

var x = 70 + 80 * 3;

Is the result of example above the same as 180 * 3, or is it the same as 70 + 180?

Is the addition or the multiplication done first?

As in traditional school mathematics, the multiplication is done first.

Multiplication (*) and division (/) have higher precedence than addition (+) and subtraction (-).

And (as in school mathematics) the precedence can be changed by using parentheses:

### Example

var x = (70 + 80) * 3;

When using parentheses, the operations inside the parentheses are computed first.

When many operations have the same precedence (like addition and subtraction), they are computed from left to right:

### Example

var x = 70 + 80 - 3;

### JavaScript Operator Precedence Values

Value Operator Description Example
19 ( ) Expression grouping (3 + 4)

18 . Member person.name
18 [] Member person["name"]

17 () Function call myFunction()
17 new Create new Date()

16 ++ Postfix Increment i++
16 -- Postfix Decrement i--

14 ++ Prefix Increment ++i
14 -- Prefix Decrement --i
14 ! Logical not !(x==y)
14 typeof Type typeof x

14 * Multiplication 10 * 4
14 / Division 10 / 4
14 % Modulo division 10 % 4
14 ** Exponentiation 10 ** 3

13 + Addition 10 + 4
13 - Subtraction 10 - 4

13 << Shift left x << 3
13 >> Shift right x >> 3

11 < Less than x < y
11 <= Less than or equal x <= y
11 > Greater than x > y
11 >= Greater than or equal x >= y

10 == Equal x == y
10 === Strict equal x === y
10 != Unequal x != y
10 !== Strict unequal x !== y

6 && And x && y
4 || Or x || y

3 = Assignment x = y
3 += Assignment x += y
3 -= Assignment x -= y
3 *= Assignment x *= y
3 /= Assignment x /= y